The key Dunwoody tests we offer include:
Dietary Antigens IgG + C3D
The Dietary Antigens IgG (subclasses 1-4) and C3D (complement) profile measures IgG and immune complexes containing the complement fragment (C3d), for 88 food antigens in serum samples using an indirect ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay).
Complement activation is well-defined in the research as a key driver of inflammation.. When activated, the complement pathway sets off an inflammatory cascade, mast cell degranulation which leads to histamine release, and cell membrane destruction.
Complement is a quantifiable, reliable biomarker of tissue inflammation.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the main immunoglobulin circulating in human blood and helps protect us from infection and outside antigens. There are four subclasses: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. IgG1 responds to new food antigens. IgG2 and IgG3 react to cell surface oligosaccharides of viruses, protozoa, and foods, which can be allergenic. IgG4 is commonly related to delayed food sensitivity symptoms. IgG can also activate the complement system to recruit an inflammatory response.
Combining IgG and complement gives a more thorough assessment of the immune system’s reaction to dietary antigens and reduces the risk of false positives associated with testing IgG in isolation.
Dietary Antigens IgG, C3D, IgE + IgG4
This comprehensive food sensitivity and allergy panel includes IgG, Complement, IgE, IgG4 + Blocking Potential for 88 food antigens, in serum samples using an indirect ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay).
A specific function of IgG4 in serum is to control antigen recognition by IgE and consequently, to regulate anaphylactic reactions and IgE-mediated immunity. The major contribution of IgG4 in the competition effect is not due to higher levels but rather to a specificity spectrum close to that of the specific IgE.
Dietary Antigen Specific Secretory IgA
The Dietary Antigen Specific Secretory IgA (sIgA) test uses saliva to assess one of the earliest responses to 88 foods.
SIgA is the dominant immunoglobulin secreted across mucosal surfaces, making up a large portion of our immune system, and is often described as our mucosal immune system or our first line of defence against microbial invasion.
Appropriate secretory IgA levels are critical in developing immune tolerance and serves to influence other branches of the immune system such as IgG and IgE.
When sIgA increases to specific foods, levels may rise initially, and it can be associated with gut-based inflammation.
This can also be a useful follow-up profile to a stool profile that may show raised sIgA but does not report a bacterial or viral trigger.
Dietary Antigens Specific IgE + IgG4
The Dietary Antigens IgE and IgG4 blocking potential, measures two immunoglobulins and the complement component for 88 food antigens in serum samples using an indirect ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay).
Complement-negative IgG4 antibodies can combine with the specific food antigen to form a food immune complex. These complexes are considered the active agents for delayed allergic responses.
These complexes also have the potential to cause allergic food responses involving the anaphylactic response or sensitivity reactions. Such reactions can lead to a range of symptoms ranging from malaise and fatigue to digestive disorders, skin problems, aching joints, and more.
A specific function of IgG4 in serum is to control antigen recognition by IgE and consequently, to regulate anaphylactic reactions and IgE-mediated immunity.
Advanced Intestinal Barrier Assessment
This advanced assessment of the intestinal barrier enables an understanding of the integrity of the barrier. Biomarkers include zonulin, which regulates tight junctions of the gut, as well as diamine oxidase (DAO), which is produced in the microvilli. A deficiency of diamine oxidase may occur if there is atrophy of the microvilli. Certain drugs, foods and bacteria may also suppress its production.
DAO breaks down histamine, which is a compound which affects the immune response, physiological function of the digestive tract, and acts as a neurotransmitter. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) is a bacterial endotoxin. Increased levels are indicative of intestinal permeability. When LPS is absorbed into systemic circulation it can elicit a strong immune response.
Testing histamine along with diamine oxidase (DAO) levels provides important information that standard food sensitivity tests may not reveal, and may be the real culprit when food sensitivities are suspected.